AS133 - Biochemical and Genetic Markers of Hypertension in White and Black Women

This page provides study documentation for AS133. For description of the specimen results, see Specimen Results Description (open to public). Data sets of the specimen results are included in the existing WHI datasets located on the WHI Data on this site (sign in and a completed Data Distribution Agreement are required; see details on the Data site).

Investigator Names and Contact Information

Howard Sesso, ScD, MPH, Harvard Medical School


The purpose of this proposed study is to examine hypotheses relating to biochemical (CRP, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF receptor 2, sICAM-1, adiponectin, glucose, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol) and genetic (the CRP, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-a, TNF receptor 2, sICAM-1, MMP-9, adiponectin, and PPAR-g2 gene polymorphisms, as well their common haplotypes) in 800 women (400 White women plus 400 Black women) who developed hypertension and 800 matched controls (400 White women plus 400 Black women) who remained free of hypertension. 

1.  To test whether elevated baseline markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction – including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 2, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) – are associated with an increased risk of hypertension in White and Black women.

2.  To directly test specific functional gene polymorphisms for the risk of hypertension in White and Black women:

a.   Six novel genes associated with the biomarkers of interest and potentially playing an important role in hypertension etiology – the CRP, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-a, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 genes.

b.   Two novel genes associated with inflammation and the metabolic syndrome – the adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-g2) genes.

3. To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of important common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the above genes and to examine the associations between haplotypes (combinations of several linked polymorphisms in individual candidate genes) and risk of hypertension in White and Black women. 


Some of the publications related to this ancillary study are:

Ms654 - Wang L, Manson JE, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Cochrane B, Cook NR, Ridker PM, Rifai N, Sesso HD. Plasma adiponectin and the risk of hypertension in White and Black postmenopausal women. Clin Chem. 2012 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print].

Ms655 - Wang L, Manson JE, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Cochrane B, Cook NR, Ridker PM, Rifai N, and Sesso HD. Circulating inflammatory and endothelial markers and risk of hypertension in white and black postmenopausal women. Clin chem. 2011 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print]

For a complete, up-to-date list of WHI papers related to this ancillary study, please use the searchable Bibliography section of this website. To search for papers by study number, access the Simple Search, and enter the study number in the “Related Studies” field. 


Note: genetic marker results for this study are not available.